|Journal||The Science of the total environment, 2020-01-10, Volume 699 Find other publications in this journal|
Pharmaceutically active compounds are major contaminants of aquatic environments. The effects on aquatic organisms have been assessed mostly through eco-toxicological tests performed using static exposure systems or flow through systems with constant concentrations. Yet, constant concentration exposures ignore the spatio-temporal dynamics of chemicals in flowing environments. In dynamic systems, a chemical's effect on an organism will vary due to fluctuations in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of the chemical concentration within the plume, which develops due to turbulence interacting with the geomorphology of habitat. The aim of this study was to analyze how different exposure dynamics to the antidepressant fluoxetine might alter the agonistic behavior of aquatic organisms. Male crayfishes, Faxonius virilis, were subjected to 23 h exposures at different concentrations of fluoxetine (control, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 10 and 100 μg/l) in both static and dynamic mesocosm systems. After exposure, size-matched crayfishes, from the same exposure system and fluoxetine concentration, underwent a fifteen minute fight trial. The aggressive intensities and duration of agonistic interactions were quantified. The time spent performing a tailflip was significantly longer for fluoxetine concentrations of 1, 10, 100 μg/l in the static exposure than in the dynamic exposure. On other hand, the time spent at higher intensities and the time to escalate to the highest intensity of interactions in control treatments were significantly lower in the dynamic exposure than in the static exposure. Whereas, in elevated fluoxetine concentrations, these times were significantly higher in the dynamic than in static treatments. Therefore, we could conclude that the fight dynamics and duration of agonistic behavior in crayfish were affected by static and dynamic exposure paradigms differently. Despite these behavioral changes, serotonin levels in fluoxetine-exposed crayfish did not differ significantly between exposure paradigms. Future research should incorporate different exposure methods that more accurately represent chemical exposure in natural habitats.
- Antidepressive Agents/toxicity
- Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity