Published Date2019-11-01
JournalLipids, 2019-11-01, Volume 54 Find other publications in this journal
Author Info
  • Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, North Park University, 3225 W Foster Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60625, USA.


Growing health awareness has resulted in the increased use of dietary supplements derived from plants and marine sources, leaving consumers unsure of their best options. There were three objectives of the present study. The first was to design and evaluate an efficient derivatization procedure. The second was to perform a comparative analysis of liquid oils and their corresponding capsules of hemp, chia, and flax seeds. The final objective was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of six fish oil products and compare it to the one provided on the label. For the FA profiling, we implemented two efficient, one-step, sustainable methods with high percentage recovery for the synthesis of FA methyl esters (FAME), which use base catalysis and microwave-assisted heating. Our results found no difference in nutritional value between liquid oils and capsules of the seed supplements, with flaxseed and chia offering a higher, beneficial n-3:n-6 ratio compared to hemp oil. Four of the fish oils analyzed contained significantly less eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than their reported label, and the other two not only agreed with the manufacturers' declaration but were able to fulfill the daily adequate intake (AI) with fewer capsules.