Published Date2019-11-15
JournalCancer, 2019-11-15, Volume 125 Find other publications in this journal
Author Info
  • Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Division of Plastic Surgery, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Division of General Surgery, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


The rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) are increasing in women with breast cancer. Previous retrospective research has examined clinical and demographic predictors of the uptake of CPM. However, to the authors' knowledge, there has been very little prospective research to date that has examined psychosocial functioning prior to breast cancer surgery to determine whether psychosocial functioning predicts uptake of CPM. The current study was conducted to evaluate demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of the uptake of CPM in women with unilateral breast cancer without a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.Women with unilateral non-BRCA-associated breast cancer completed questionnaires prior to undergoing breast cancer surgery. Participants completed demographic and psychosocial questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, cancer-related distress, optimism/pessimism, breast satisfaction, and quality of life. Pathological and surgical data were collected from medical charts.A total of 506 women consented to participate, 112 of whom (22.1%) elected to undergo CPM. Age was found to be a significant predictor of CPM, with younger women found to be significantly more likely to undergo CPM compared with older women (P < .0001). The rate of CPM was significantly higher in women with noninvasive breast cancer compared with those with invasive breast cancer (P < .0001). Women who elected to undergo CPM had lower levels of presurgical breast satisfaction (P = .01) and optimism (P = .05) compared with women who did not undergo CPM.Psychosocial functioning at the time of breast cancer surgery decision making impacts decisions related to CPM. Women who have lower levels of breast satisfaction (body image) and optimism are more likely to elect to undergo CPM. It is important for health care providers to take psychosocial functioning into consideration when discussing surgical options.

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Mesh Terms

  • Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms/surgery
  • Prophylactic Mastectomy