Publication NumberUS 10510914
Assignees
  • Board of Trustees of Michigan State University
Filing StatusIssued Patent
US PAIR StatusPatented Case
US PAIR Status Date2019-11-26
Application Number14/220850
AvailabilityUnknown
Filing Date2014-03-20
Publication Date2019-12-17

Abstract

A transparent luminescent solar concentrator is provided. The transparent luminescent solar concentrator has luminophores embedded within a waveguide matrix that both selectively absorb and emit near-infrared light to an edge mounted or embedded solar photovoltaic array.

Claims

  • 1. An energy harvesting system comprising a waveguide, and a sole waveguide redirecting material embedded in the waveguide, the waveguide coupled to either at least one solar photovoltaic array or at least one solar photovoltaic cell, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is visibly transparent and selectively harvests and emits light in a near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by having a strongest peak absorbance of light at a wavelength of greater than about 650 nm and a strongest peak emission of light at a wavelength of greater than about 650 nm, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material creates luminescence with a quantum yield of greater than about 20%, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is selected from the group consisting of 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5 heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (HITCI), 2-[2-[2-Chloro-3-[(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-1-propyl-2H-indol-2 ylidene)ethylidene]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]ethenyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1-propylindolium iodide (IR780), 3-(6-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-1,1-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3((E)-2-(1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-1H-benzo[e]indolium chloride, 1-(6-,(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1, 3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (Cy7 NHS ester; “CY”), 1,1-dimethyl-3-(6-oxo-6-(prop-2-ynylamino)hexyl)-2-((1E,3E,5E)-5-(1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene)penta-1,3-dienyl)-1H-benzo[e]indolium chloride (Cy5.5 alkyne), 1-(5-carboxypentyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (Cy7 carboxylic acid), and combinations thereof, wherein the energy harvesting system is visibly transparent, having an average visible transmittance of greater than about 50% and a color rendering index of greater than about 85 at normal incidence to the waveguide.
  • 2. The system according to claim 1, wherein the waveguide and the sole waveguide redirecting material have a visible transmittance of greater than about 60%.
  • 3. The system according to claim 1, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material additionally harvests light in a ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by having a second strongest peak absorbance of light at a wavelength of less than about 450 nm.
  • 4. The system according to claim 1, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is a luminophore, or a combination of a luminophore and a scattering nanoparticle.
  • 5. The system according to claim 4, wherein the system comprises photovoltaic arrays spaced by a distance defined by a scattering loss length of the scattering nanoparticle or luminophore.
  • 6. The system according to claim 1, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is a visibly-transparent luminophore.
  • 7. The system according to claim 6, wherein the luminophore is 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5 heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (HITCI); 1-(6-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-,((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (CY); or a combination thereof.
  • 8. The system according to claim 1 further comprising a first wavelength-selective mirror coupled to a first surface of the waveguide, wherein the first wavelength-selective mirror is transparent to visible light and reflective to NIR light.
  • 9. The system according to claim 8 further comprising a second wavelength-selective mirror coupled to a second surface of the waveguide, wherein the second wavelength-selective mirror is transparent to visible light and reflective to NIR light, and the waveguide is positioned between the first and second wavelength-selective mirrors.
  • 10. The system according to claim 9, wherein the first wavelength-selective mirror reflects NIR light of a different wavelength than the second wavelength-selective mirror.
  • 11. The system according to claim 9, wherein the first wavelength-selective mirror is the same as the wavelength-selective second mirror.
  • 12. The system according to claim 9, wherein the wavelength-selective mirrors improve collector absorption and increase waveguiding.
  • 13. The system according to claim 1, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is a luminophore, and the system comprises solar photovoltaic arrays spaced by a distance defined by a reabsorption length of the luminophore dictated by a Stokes shift.
  • 14. The system according to claim 1, wherein the system comprises at least one solar photovoltaic array and the sole waveguide redirecting material is embedded in the at least one solar photovoltaic array.
  • 15. The system according to claim 1, wherein the system comprises at least one solar photovoltaic array and the sole waveguide redirecting material is juxtaposed to the at least one solar photovoltaic array.
  • 16. The system according to claim 1, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material has a strongest peak absorbance of light in a near-infrared (NIR) region (>650 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum, and has an absorption in the visible spectrum less than in the NIR.
  • 17. The system according to claim 1, where in the energy harvesting system is a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC).
  • 18. The system according to claim 17, wherein the LSC is transparent, having an average visible transmittance of greater than about 50% and a color rendering index of greater than about 85.
  • 19. An energy harvesting system, comprising: a. a waveguide; b. a solar photovoltaic array or a solar photovoltaic cell coupled to the waveguide; and c. a sole waveguide redirecting material embedded within the waveguide, the sole waveguide redirecting material being selected from the group consisting of 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5 heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (HITCI), 2[2-[2-Chloro-3-[(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-1-propyl-2H-indol-2 ylidene)ethylidene]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]ethenyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1-propylindolium iodide (IR780), 3-(6-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-1,1-dimethyl-2-,((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-1H-benzo[e]indolium chloride, 1-(6-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (Cy7 NHS ester; “CY”), 1,1-dimethyl-3-(6-oxo-6-(prop-2-ynylamino)hexyl)-2-((1E,3E,5E)-5-(1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene)penta-1,3-dienyl)-1H-benzo[e]indolium chloride (Cy5.5 alkyne), 1-(5-carboxypentyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (Cy7 carboxylic acid), and combinations thereof, wherein the energy harvesting system is visibly transparent, having an average visible transmittance of greater than about 50% and a color rendering index of greater than about 85 at normal incidence to the waveguide.
  • 20. The system according to claim 19, further comprising a visibly transparent mirror coupled to a first surface of the waveguide, wherein the mirror is transparent to visible light and reflects light with a wavelength of greater than about 650 nm.
  • 21. The system according to claim 20, further comprising a second visibly transparent mirror coupled to a second surface of the waveguide opposite to the first surface, wherein the second mirror reflects visible light and light with a wavelength of greater than about 650 nm.
  • 22. The system according to claim 21, wherein the mirrors comprise layers of TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3, or combinations thereof.
  • 23. The system according to claim 19, wherein the solar photovoltaic array comprises germanium (Ge); amorphous germanium (a-Ge); gallium (Ga); gallium arsenide (GaAs); silicon (Si); amorphous silicon (a-Si); silicon-germanium (SiGe); amorphous silicon-germanium (a-SiGe); gallium indium phosphide (GaInP); copper indium selenide, copper indium sulfide; copper indium gallium selenide, copper indium gallium sulfide; cadmium telluride (CdTe); perovskites (PV); and combinations thereof.
  • 24. The system according to claim 23, wherein the perovskites include CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbCl3, CH3NH3PbBr3, or combinations thereof.
  • 25. The system according to claim 19, wherein the waveguide comprises glass, plastic, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly-(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA), or (poly)-butyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate (PBMMA).
  • 26. The system according to claim 19, wherein the photovoltaic array is wired as a mesh, wired in series, or wired in parallel.
  • 27. The system according to claim 19, wherein the photovoltaic array comprises wires, microwires, nanowires, ribbons, slivers, spheres, dots, or combinations thereof.
  • 28. The system according to claim 19, wherein the waveguide comprises a first surface, a second surface opposite from the first surface, and a middle section between the first surface and the second surface, and wherein the solar photovoltaic array is positioned near the first surface, near the second surface or in the middle section of the waveguide.
  • 29. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system comprises a plurality of solar photovoltaic arrays.
  • 30. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system is visibly transparent.
  • 31. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system is a window.
  • 32. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system is integrated into a building's electrical system.
  • 33. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system is integrated into a display on a monitor, mobile device, or a billboard.
  • 34. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system has an average visible transparency of greater than about 70%.
  • 35. The system according to claim 19, wherein the system has an efficiency of greater than about 0.5%.
  • 36. An energy harvesting system, comprising: a. a waveguide comprising glass, plastic, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly-(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA), or (poly)-butyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate (PBMMA); b. at least one solar photovoltaic array or at least one solar photovoltaic cell coupled to the waveguide; and c. a sole waveguide redirecting material that is visibly transparent and that selectively absorbs and emits light in a near-infrared (NRI) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by having a strongest peak absorbance of light at a wavelength greater than about 650 nm and a strongest peak emission of light at a wavelength of greater than about 650 nm, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is embedded within the waveguide, creates luminescence with a quantum yield of greater than about 20%, and is selected from the group consisting of 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (HITCI), 2-[2-[2-Chloro-3-[(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-1-propyl-2H-indol-2ylidene)ethylidene]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]ethenyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1-propylindolium iodide (IR780), 3-(6-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-1,1-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-1H-benzo[e]indolium chloride, 1-,(6-,(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (Cy7 NHS ester; “CY”), 1,1-dimethyl-3-(6-oxo-6-(prop-2-ynylamino)hexyl)-2-((1E,3E,5E)-5-(1,1,3-trimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2(3H)-ylidene)penta-1,3-dienyl)-1H-benzo[e]indolium chloride (Cy5.5 alkyne), 1-(5-carboxypentyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (Cy7 carboxylic acid), and combinations thereof, and wherein the energy harvesting system is visibly transparent, having an average visible transmittance of greater than about 50% and a color rendering index of greater than about 85 at normal incidence to the waveguide.
  • 37. The system according to claim 36, wherein the sole waveguide redirecting material is 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5 heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (HITCI); 1-(6-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-((E)-2-((E)-3-((E)-2-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-enyl)vinyl)-3H-indolium chloride (CY); or a combination thereof.
  • 38. The system according to claim 1, wherein the system comprises at least one solar photovoltaic cell positioned on at least one edge of the waveguide.
  • 39. The system according to claim 1, wherein the system comprises at least one solar photovoltaic array disposed on a surface of the waveguide or embedded within the waveguide, wherein the at least one solar photovoltaic array comprises a photovoltaic material arranged in series or as a mesh.