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Publication
ID31187429Published Date2020-03-01JournalAmbio, 2020-03-01, Volume 49
Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are an integral component of Arctic biodiversity. Given low genetic diversity, their ability to respond to future and rapid Arctic change is unknown, although paleontological history demonstrates adaptability within limits. We discuss status and limitations of current monitoring, and summarize circumpolar status and recent variations, delineating all 55 endemic or translocated populations. Acknowledging uncertainties, global abundance is ca 170 000 muskoxen. Not al…
Publication
IDDOI:10.1175/jcli-d-19-0528.1Published Date2020-03-01JournalJournal of Climate, 2020-03-01, Volume 33
Large sea ice loss on the synoptic time scale is examined in various subregions in the Arctic as well as at the pan-Arctic scale. It is found that the frequency of large daily sea ice loss (LDSIL) days is significantly correlated with the September sea ice extent over the Beaufort–Chukchi–Siberian Seas, the Laptev–Kara Seas, the central Arctic, and the all-Arctic regions, indicating a link between the synoptic sea ice variability and the interannual variability of the annual minimum sea ice e…
Publication
ID31030417Published Date2020-03-01JournalAmbio, 2020-03-01, Volume 49
The terrestrial chapter of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) has the potential to bring international multi-taxon, long-term monitoring together, but detailed fundamental species information for Arctic arthropods lags far behind that for vertebrates and plants. In this paper, we demonstrate this major challenge to the CBMP by focussing on spiders (Order: Araneae) as an example group. We collate available circumpolar data on the distribution of spiders and highlight the …
Publication
ID30879270Published Date2020-03-01JournalAmbio, 2020-03-01, Volume 49
The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) provides an opportunity to improve our knowledge of Arctic arthropod diversity, but initial baseline studies are required to summarise the status and trends of planned target groups of species known as Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). We begin this process by collating available data for a relatively well-studied region in the Arctic, the North Atlantic region, summarising the diversity of key terrestrial arthropod FECs, and compiling…
Publication
ID31792797Published Date2020-03-01JournalAmbio, 2020-03-01, Volume 49
We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic r…
Research Grant
Award Number1926632Funding AgencyNational Science FoundationEffective Date2020-03-01Expiration Date2023-02-28Funding Amount$233,338
Carbon is the energy currency of ecosystems. Carbon emissions from streams and rivers are important sources of carbon to the atmosphere. Scientists rarely measure the movement of carbon from air to plants, into soils and groundwater, through streams and rivers, and back to the atmosphere. This research will develop new methods and data to measure terrestrial carbon cycling through freshwaters. This project will also train diverse students and professionals to conduct research linking terrestr…
Publication
ID31988125Published Date2020-02-11JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2020-02-11, Volume 117
The Arctic climate was warmer than today at the last interglacial and the Holocene thermal optimum. To reveal the impact of past climate-warming events on the demographic history of an Arctic specialist, we examined both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic variation in the collared lemming (, Pallas), a keystone species in tundra communities, across its entire distribution in northern Eurasia. The ancestral phylogenetic position of the West Beringian group and divergence time estimates support …
Publication
ID32045959Published Date2020-02-11JournalEnvironmental toxicology and chemistry, 2020-02-11
Dried blood spots (DBS), created by applying and drying a whole blood sample onto filter paper, provide a simple and minimally invasive procedure for collecting, transporting, and storing blood. Because DBS are ideal for use in field and resource-limited settings, we aimed to develop a simple and accurate DBS-based approach for assessing mercury (Hg) exposure and dietary carbon sources for landlocked Arctic char, a sentinel fish species in the Arctic. We collected liquid whole blood (from the…
Publication
ID32041807Published Date2020-02-10JournalThe Journal of experimental biology, 2020-02-10
The cardiovascular system is critical for delivering O to tissues. Here we examine the cardiovascular responses to progressive hypoxia in four high-altitude Andean duck species compared to four related low-altitude populations in North America, tested at their native altitude. Ducks were exposed to stepwise decreases in inspired partial pressure of O while we monitored heart rate, O consumption rate, blood O saturation, haematocrit (Hct), and blood haemoglobin concentration [Hb]. We calculate…
Publication
ID31865076Published Date2020-03-10JournalThe Science of the total environment, 2020-03-10, Volume 707
During a global catastrophe such as a nuclear winter, in which sunlight and temperatures are reduced across every latitude, to maintain global agricultural output it is necessary to grow some crops under structures. This study designs a method for scaling up crop production in low-tech greenhouses to contribute to global food sustainability during global catastrophic conditions. Constructing low-tech greenhouses would obviate growing crops using more expensive and energy intensive artificial …
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Research Grants: 3,048
Publications: 4,235
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