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ID32065640Published Date2020-07-01JournalSystematic biology, 2020-07-01, Volume 69
Phylogenomic analyses have helped resolve many recalcitrant relationships in the angiosperm tree of life, yet phylogenetic resolution of the backbone of the Leguminosae, one of the largest and most economically and ecologically important families, remains poor due to generally limited molecular data and incomplete taxon sampling of previous studies. Here, we resolve many of the Leguminosae's thorniest nodes through comprehensive analysis of plastome-scale data using multiple modified coding a…
Publication
ID32304827Published Date2020-08-01JournalMolecular phylogenetics and evolution, 2020-08-01, Volume 149
DNA methyltransferases are proteins that modify DNA via attachment of methyl groups to nucleobases and are ubiquitous across the bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic domains of life. Here, we investigated the complex evolutionary history of the large and consequential 4mC/6mA DNA methyltransferase protein family using phylogenetic reconstruction of amino acid sequences. We present a well-supported phylogeny of this family based on systematic sampling of taxa across superphyla of bacteria and a…
Publication
ID31369159Published Date2020-08-01JournalThe New phytologist, 2020-08-01, Volume 227
The evolution of l-DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase activity, encoded by the gene DODA, was a key step in the origin of betalain biosynthesis in Caryophyllales. We previously proposed that l-DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase activity evolved via a single Caryophyllales-specific neofunctionalisation event within the DODA gene lineage. However, this neofunctionalisation event has not been confirmed and the DODA gene lineage exhibits numerous gene duplication events, whose evolutionary significance is unclear. To addres…
Publication
ID32222561Published Date2020-08-01JournalAddictive behaviors, 2020-08-01, Volume 107
E-cigarettes appeal to adolescents because of alternative uses, such as dripping (i.e., applying e-liquid directly on the atomizer) and conducting vape tricks (i.e., creating shapes from exhaled aerosol). However, little is known about these behaviors and adolescents who engage in these behaviors.Using cross-sectional surveys from 4 high schools in Connecticut in 2017 (N = 2945), we assessed the frequency of dripping and conducting vape tricks, product characteristics (e.g., nicotine, flavor)…
Publication
ID32541816Published Date2020-06-15JournalExperimental & molecular medicine, 2020-06-15
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present numerous biomedical ways of studying disease and pathology. They function as protective packaging for the delivery of controlled concentrations of miRNAs and effector molecules, including cytokines, chemokines, genetic material, and small signaling molecules. Previous studies of EVs have yielded valuable insights into pathways of intercellular communication that affect a variety of biological processes and disease responses. The roles of EVs, specifically …
Publication
ID31981046Published Date2020-06-01JournalOrigins of life and evolution of the biosphere : the journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life, 2020-06-01, Volume 50
Understanding the emergence of metabolic pathways is key to unraveling the factors that promoted the origin of life. One popular view is that protein cofactors acted as catalysts prior to the evolution of the protein enzymes with which they are now associated. We investigated the stability of acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl Co-A, the group transfer cofactor in citric acid synthesis in the TCA cycle) under early Earth conditions, as well as whether Acetyl Co-A or its small molecule analogs thioaceta…
Publication
ID32428861Published Date2020-05-22JournaliScience, 2020-05-22, Volume 23
Kingdonia uniflora, an alpine herb, has an extremely narrow distribution and represents a model for studying evolutionary mechanisms of species that have adapted to undisturbed environments for evolutionarily long periods of time. We assembled a 1,004.7-Mb draft genome (encoding 43,301 genes) of K. uniflora and found significant overrepresentation in gene families associated with DNA repair, underrepresentation in gene families associated with stress response, and loss of most plastid ndh gen…
Publication
IDDOI:10.1093/nsr/nwaa105Published Date2020-05-21JournalNational Science Review, 2020-05-21
Abstract To evaluate phylogenetic patterns of the distribution and evolution of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), we selected 8 classes of PSMs and mapped them onto an updated phylogenetic tree including 437 families of seed plants. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in 17 of the 18 tested seed plant clades for at least one of the 8 PSM classes using the D statistic. Phylogenetic signal, nevertheless, indicated weak clustering of PSMs compared to a random distribution across all s…
Publication
ID32432350Published Date2020-05-01JournalAmerican journal of botany, 2020-05-01, Volume 107
Medullary bundles, i.e., vascular units in the pith, have evolved multiple times in vascular plants. However, no study has ever explored their anatomical diversity and evolution within a phylogenetic framework. Here, we investigated the development of the primary vascular system within Nyctaginaceae showing how medullary bundles diversified within the family.Development of 62 species from 25 of the 31 genera of Nyctaginaceae in stem samples was thoroughly studied with light microscopy and mic…
Publication
ID32152231Published Date2020-05-01JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry, 2020-05-01, Volume 295
Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are a newly discovered class of signaling lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. However, the endogenous regulation of FAHFAs remains a pressing but unanswered question. Here, using MS-based FAHFA hydrolysis assays, LC-MS-based lipidomics analyses, and activity-based protein profiling, we found that androgen-induced gene 1 (AIG1) and androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein (ADTRP), two threonine hydrolases, control FAHF…
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